Jumat, 11 November 2011

Adjective Clause

Adjective Clause dinamakan juga RELATIVE CLAUSE yaitu Clause (anak kalimat) yang digunakan/berfungsi sebagai adjective yang menerangkan keadaan noun atau pronoun. Untuk lebih jelasnya penjelasan mengenai Adjective Clause, perhatikan penjelasan di bawah ini:

  • I have read the book (that) you just mentioned.

    Main Clause: I have read the book.
    Subordinate Clause: (that) you just mentioned.
Anak kalimat menerangkan kata benda the book, disebut dengan Adjective Clause
  • The lesson (that) she is learning is very difficult.

    Main Clause: The lesson is very difficult.
    Subordinate Clause: (that) she is learning.
Berdasarkan pada the Antecedent yang ditunjuk oleh introductory words (kata-kata pendahulunya), Adjective Clause dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 macam, yaitu:

1. Relative Pronoun
  • Kata Ganti Orang
    Kata Penghubung yang digunakan adalah : Who, Whom, Whose, That

    Fungsi :

    a. Subjek:

    - He paid the money to the man who / that had done the work

    b. Objek Kata Kerja:

    - He paid the man whom/that he had hired.

    c. Objek Kata Depan:

    - He paid the man from whom he had borrowed the money.

    d. Kata Ganti Kepunyaan:

    - This is the girl whose picture you saw.
  • Benda, Binatang

    Kata Penghubung yang digunakan adalah: Which, that


    a. Subjek:

    - Here is a book which/that describes animals.

    b. Objek Kata Kerja:

    - The chair which/that he broke is being repaired.

    c. Objek Kata Depan:

    - She was wearing the coat for which she had paid $2,00.
2. Relative Adverbs
  • Waktu

    Kata Penghubung yang digunakan: when

    - This is the year when the Olympic Games are held.
  • Tempat

    Kata Penghubung yang digunakan: where

    - Here is the house where I live.
  • Alasan

    Kata Penghubung yang digunakan: when

    - Give me one good reason why you did that.

1. Relative Pronoun

Yaitu Adjective Clause dengan memakai kata penghubung Relative Pronoun. 
  • The boy is called Bob. He gave me a present.
    • The boy who gave me a present is called Bob. atau
    • The boy who is called Bob gave me a present.
Beberapa contoh Adjective Clause lainnya:
  • The boy whose radio was stolen is a student.
  • The girl whom I gave a special reward is a bright student.
  • The bike which I borrowed last week was sold.
2. Relative Adverb

Pelajaran tentang ini dibahas lebih lengkap pada Relative Clause. Hal-hal yang perlu ditambahkan di sini, yaitu:
  • Kata Why (yang menunjukkan alasan) yang menjadi Adverb penghubung, mungkin (kadang-kadang) dapat digantikan dengan that atau kadang-kadang dapat dihilangkan dalam kalimat.

    - The reason (that) I came should be obvious to you.
    - The reason (why) I came should be obvious to you.
    - The reason I came should be obvious to you.
  • When atau Where Bering dapat Baling ditukarkan dengan Preposition yang menunjukkan tempat (a preposition of Place) ditambah dengan Which.

    - The small town in which (= where) I was born has grown to a large metropolis.
    - The day on which (= when) they were to leave finally arrived. 
Kadang-kadang that dapat menggantikan where atau when.
  • The day that (or when, on which) the trial was to take place was a stormy one.
  • Please suggest a good place that (or where) we can meet
Beberapa Hal Penting yang Berkaitan dengan Adjective Clause
  • Perubahan dari Adjective Clause menjadi Adjective Phrase.
    • Adjective Clause dapat dirubah menjadi Adjective Phrase yang menjelaskan noun tanpa ada perubahan arti kalimat.
    • Hanya Adjective Clause yang mempunyai subjek pronoun: who, which atau that yang dapat dirubah menjadi Adjective Phrase.
    • Adjective Clause dengan subjek: whom tidak dapat dirubah menjadi Adjective Phrase.

      Perhatikan Contoh berikut:

      a. Adjective Clause

      * The girl who is sitting next to me is Lisa.
      ==> The boy is playing the piano is Bent.

      b. Adjective Phrase

      * The girl sitting next to me is Lisa.
      ==> The boy playing the piano is Bent.
  • Cara mengubah Adjective Clause menjadi Adjective Phrase.

    (1) Subjek pronoun dan verb be dihilangkan.

    * Adjective Clause: The man who is talking to Taylor is from Japan.
    * Adjective Phrase: The man talking to Taylor is from Japan.

    * Adjective Clause: The ideas which are presented in that book are interesting.
    * Adjective Phrase: The ideas presented in that book are interesting.

    * Adjective Clause: Ali is the man who is responsible for preparing the budget.
    * Adjective Phrase: Ali is the man responsible for preparing the budget.

    * Adjective Clause: The books that are on the shelf are mine.
    * Adjective Phrase: The books on the shelf are mine.

    (2) Jika tidak ada verb be dalam Adjective Clause, seringkali subjek pronoun dapat dihilangkan dan mengubah kata kerja dalam Clause itu menjadi bentuk -ing.

    * Adjective Clause: English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters.
    * Adjective Phrase: English has an alphabet  consisting of 26 letters.

    * Adjective Clause: Anyone who wants to come with us is welcome.
    * Adjective Phrase: Anyone wanting to come with us is welcome.
  • Seringkali Adjective Clause digunakan dalam pola: noun + of which. Pola ini terutama digunakan untuk tulisan bahasa Inggris resmi (formal written English). Dalam pola ini biasanya Adjective Clause menerangkan "sesuatu".

    * We have an antique table. The top of it has jade inlay.
    • We have an antique table, the top of which has jade inlay.
    • We toured a 300-year-old house. The exterior of the house consisted of logs cemented with clay.
    • We toured a 300-year-old house, the exterior of which consisted of logs cemented with lay.
  • Adjective Clause sering digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kuantitas dengan of. Ungkapan kuantitas mendahului pronoun, dan hanya whom, which, dan whose yang digunakan dalam pola ini.

    Ungkapan kuantitas dengan "of" antara lain: some of, none of, both of, one of, many of, two of, all of, each of, most of, dll.

    * There are 20 students in my class. Most of them are from the Outside Java.
    --> There are 20 students in my class, most of whom are from the Outside Java.

    * He gave several reasons. Only a few of them were valid.
    --> He gave several reasons, only a few of which were valid.
  • Tanda Baca pada Adjective Clauses

    Pedoman umum dalam Tanda Baca pada Adjective Clauses yaitu:
    • Jangan menggunakan tanda koma bila Adjective Clause diperlukan untuk mengidentifikasi noun yang dijelaskan olehnya.
    • Gunakanlah tanda koma bila Adjective Clause hanya berfungsi untuk memberi informasi tambahan dan tidak dimaksudkan untuk mengidentifikasi noun yang dijelaskan olehnya.
      • Henry whose wife works at a bank came to my house yesterday.
      • Alex, whose wife works at a bank, came to my house yesterday.


    Contoh pertama menggambarkan bahwa Henry memiliki lebih dari 1 istri. Pada kalimat tersebut pembicara ingin mengindentifikasikan istrinya yang bekerja di Bank, bukan yang lainnya.

    Sedangkan pada kalimat kedua, kita sudah jelas, kalau Alex memiliki hanya 1 orang istri. Frase yang berada di antara koma hanya memberikan keterangan tambahan saja. Tanpa frase tersebut pun orang lain sudah mengetahuinya kalau istrinya Alex memang bekerja di sebuah Bank karena memang istrinya cuma 1 itu.

    Perhatikan contoh berikut ini untuk lebih jelasnya dalam penggunaan tanda koma dalam Adjective Clause.
    • Soekarno, who is the first President of Republic of Indonesia, could deliver speech well.
Perbedaan antara Adjective Clause dan Noun Clause

Karena adanya kesamaan dalam beberapa kata pendahulunya, maka kadang-kadang antara Noun Clause dan Adjective Clause sering membingungkan.

Ada 2 macam perbedaan yang penting antara dua jenis Clause tersebut: perhatikan contoh berikut ini:
  • Adjective Clause biasanya didahului oleh noun atau pronoun yang diterangkan.

    Adjective Clause
    • I know the house where he lives.
    (where he lives mempunyai antecedent the house, yang merupakan objek dari kata know)

    Noun Clause
    • I know where he lives.
    (where he lives adalah objek dari kata know)
Preposisi yang mendahului introductory word adalah milik Adjective Clause dan bukan milik Noun Clause.

Adjective Clause
  • The woman to whom he has been giving money is a poor relative of his.
(Adjective Clause dimulai dengan to yang merupakan bentuk a prepositional phrase dengan whom dalam Adjective Clause itu. Dan To dapat diletakkan di bagian belakang Adjective Clause. The woman, whom he has been giving money to, is a poor relative of his).

Noun Clause
  • He gives money to whoever needs it.
(The Noun Clause dimulai dengan whoever, seluruh Noun Clause itu adalah objek dari to, yang tidak dapat dipindah letaknya. Dan juga -ever- merupakan bentuk yang hanya bergandeng (mengikuti) dengan Noun Clause. 

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